Crash technology used in locomotives, freight wagons and passenger coaches is aimed at increasing safety. Its use in some types of rail vehicles is required by UIC regulations. It works by absorbing a large part of the crash energy in an irreversible process, thereby increasing the safety of people, load and vehicle.
According to the OTIF (former RID) regulations and new UIC Leaflet No. 573 on tank wagons for transporting hazardous materials (toxic materials and flammable gasses: 2T and 2F) buffers that can absorb the energy of a collision must be installed to the end of 2012. For new rail cars (manufactured from 2007) each buffer must absorb 400 kJ of energy, and 250 kJ for rail cars already in use.